Osnove IT omrežij

Če morate narediti napredne nastavitve za IP kamere, snemalnike ali druge omrežne naprave, morate imeti vsaj osnovno znanje o IT omrežjih. V tem članku povzemamo najpomembnejše znanje, ki ga morate imeti. 

 

1. Kaj je namen funkcije DHCP?

Če je na napravi omogočena funkcija DHCP, ni treba ročno nastaviti IP naslova, omrežne maske, prehoda itd. Če torej nimate zadostnega znanja o IT omrežjih in ne veste, kako nastaviti zgornje parametre, potem priporočamo uporabo funkcije DHCP.

Pomanjkljivost funkcije DHCP je, da se IP-naslov naprave lahko sčasoma spremeni, kar lahko povzroči zaplete, na primer, ko kamero priključite na zunanji snemalnik ali NAS. V tem primeru priporočamo, da IP naslov in druge parametre nastavite ročno.

 

2. Kako ugotoviti naslov IP in druge parametre usmerjevalnika

IP naslov usmerjevalnika lahko najdete na primer na naslednji način:

  1. Odprite ukazni poziv (gumb Windows in nato vnesite: cmd)
  2. Vrsta: ipconfig / vse
  3. Vse zaznane nastavitve usmerjevalnika bodo navedene naslednje

Tu so pomembni parametri, ki nas zanimajo:

Naslov IPv4 - Naslov naprave, s katere je bil poslan ukaz ipconfig / all.
Privzeti prehod - IP naslov usmerjevalnika in hkrati privzeti prehod.
Sugnet maska - Maska omrežja.
DNS strežniki - DNS strežniki. 

3. Kako ročno nastaviti IP kamero in druge omrežne parametre

 

Nastavitev IP naslova in drugih parametrov se privzeto izvede prek programa ali aplikacije, ki je priložena napravi. Tukaj razlagamo načela, ki jih morate upoštevati pri nastavljanju parametrov.

  • Več naprav ne sme imeti istega naslova IP v istem omrežju (to bo povzročilo okvaro obeh naprav).
  • Omrežni segment naprave mora biti enak kot omrežni segment usmerjevalnika.
  • IP naslov ne sme biti rezerviran za funkcijo DHCP (glej točko 4)

Če je naslov IP usmerjevalnika 192.168.1 . 1 . (modra = segment omrežja; oranžna = določen naslov IP) (glej točko 2), zato mora imeti naslov IP, ki ga bomo nastavili za ciljno napravo, enak segment omrežja, torej se mora začeti z 192.168.1 in številko za zadnja pika je potem specifična Naslov IP naprave, ki mora biti edinstven. Ker je "1" naslov usmerjevalnika, je ta že zaseden, tako da lahko testiramo (glej točko 4) katero koli drugo številko do 254. 

 

 

4. Kako ugotoviti, kateri IP naslov v omrežju je brezplačen

 

Preverjanje, ali se naprava nahaja na določenem naslovu IP, se lahko izvede na primer s tako imenovanim pingingom.

Predpostavimo, da ima usmerjevalnik naslov IP 192.168.1.1 in da so naslovi od 192.168.1.2 do 192.168.1.50 rezervirani za funkcijo DHCP (to je treba preveriti v nastavitvah usmerjevalnika). 

V tem primeru mora biti naslov IP konfigurirane naprave v območju od 192.168.1.51 do 192.168.1.254.

Zato izberimo naslov, kot je 192.168.1.60, ki ga moramo preizkusiti, da ugotovimo, ali je brezplačen, kot sledi:

  1. Odprite ukazni poziv (pritisnite Windows in nato vnesite "cmd")
  2. Nato vnesite: ping 192.168.1.60
  3. Če seznam pomeni, da se naslov IP ne ujema (gostitelj nedosegljiv), to pomeni, da je naslov brezplačen. Če je na seznamu "Odgovori ....", to pomeni, da naprava obstaja na tem naslovu in je zaseden, zato morate preizkusiti drug naslov.

Primer odgovora, ko naslov prost:

Primer odgovora, ko je naslov zaseden:

 

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